Pierre Leclercq believes a Bavarian fairground artist lit the flame of passion for chips in Belgium in 1830. French-speaking countries and Great Britain often gave Germans the nickname ‘Fritz’, so this talented salesman made use of his predestined name to promote his product: thin slices of fried potato. They were a big hit and became part of Belgian fairs before turning chips into a real business in les baraques à frites (French fry shacks). The Belgians are in fact now eager to include chips in the Unesco2 list of intangible heritage.
Even though the Belgians consume the most chips per capita, the love for these light golden sticks goes way beyond their border. Whether chips are partnered with a steak in France, or with a burger in the US, the entire world succumbs to potatoes when fried crispy on the outside and soft in the middle. The annual consumption of chips worldwide amounts to almost eleven million tonnes, which is equivalent to 350 kg a second.3 Two thirds of potato production goes to making chips, and the market exploded in the first decade of the 21st century with a 26% increase in production. Frozen chips bring in the highest sales, as they satisfy modern consumers’ preference for speed and simplicity. The Canadian giant McCain was the first to make them on a global scale, and currently accounts for 33% of world production.
Despite this undeniable enthusiasm, chips are often criticised as they are associated with junk food and fast food. Gourmets banned them for many years, but top chefs have been seduced by their commercial success and have now raised chips to gastronomic echelons. Chef, Franck Putelat, awarded two Michelin stars, suggests a metamorphosed cooking technique: His tartare-frite serves a rounded chip, not fried but puffed (pomme soufflée).4 Meanwhile, Alain Ducasse, awarded three Michelin stars, presents his particular version of English fish and chips, highlighting the tasty sauce served with the chips.5
Beware of overdoing things
Potatoes have their proper place in a varied and balanced diet.6 That being said, once transformed into chips, the cooking oil (between 4% and 7% of the ingredients in McCain chips) and the sugars they contain may have less enticing effects on health. In a recent study7, Danish researcher Anne Raben indicates that eating chips increases the risk of obesity, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.
To make matters worse, when sugars derived from starch are heated to over 120°C in the presence of the amino acid asparagine, they are easily converted into acrylamide. Starch and asparagine are abundant in potatoes fried at 180°C to make chips. Acrylamide is considered a likely carcinogenic compound. Researcher Janneke Hogervorst of Hasselt University in Belgium stipulates, “We are still not sure about the mechanism of action by which acrylamide causes cancer, actually. It has clearly been proven that acrylamide causes cancer in experimental animals (…)”8 She goes on to mention that acrylamide is also a known neurotoxin. Hence, the European Union adopted a code of practice in 2017 to endeavour to limit the levels of acrylamide in food.9
Nonetheless, according to currently available data, the first deleterious effects of acrylamide would appear if chips are consumed on a regular basis… but in the realms of several kilograms of chips a day.10 However, this is not a valid reason for doing nothing about it. Frying can be ‘improved’, for example, by using varieties of potato with a lower sugar content, or by frying them at a temperature lower than 175°C. Storage also has an influence on the levels of acrylamide: Temperatures below 6°C favour the production of acrylamide in raw potatoes, whereas temperatures above 8°C may initiate germination. Pierre Gondé, McCain Foods’ Director of Scientific and Corporate Affairs for Continental Europe, reports that “Wider cut chips (wedges) have a lower fat content.”
On balance, frying isn’t all bad. To produce frozen chips, the potatoes are simply cut, blanched and frozen. There are no additives. Pierre Gondé points out that you can judge the quality of the final product by its colour: He doesn’t recommended chips that are brownish once cooked. The big manufacturers have also launched a practical online guide11 to help consumers cook this tempting treat as healthily as possible. All in all, whether it’s chips or fries, it’s wise to compromise…
1. VREUGDENHIL, Dick et al.
2. LYON, Carole, 2017.
3. CONSOGLOBE, 2012.
4. GROUPE DÉPÊCHE DU MIDI, 2017.
5. ELLE VIDÉOS, 2012.
6. SANTÉ CANADA, 2016.
7. BORCH, Daniel et al., 2016.
8. Epidemiological data for humans is less conclusive but does not exclude drawing the same conclusions. Cf. FAO, WHO, 2011.
9. Cf. GONDÉ, Pierre, 2018.
10. See FAO, WHO, 2011.
11. EUROPEAN POTATO PROCESSORS’ ASSOCIATION, 2018.