Appertisation is a preservation process for long-term storage of food, named after its inventor Nicolas Appert. It involves sterilisation of food in an airtight container by heat treatment followed by hermetic sealing. This innovative early 19th century process was soon taken up by leading food companies and was the instigation for the canning industry. It also began to be used in households from the early 20th century onwards.
Packaging plays its protective role in various ways. It was originally used to protect foodstuffs from natural hazards and help prevent them from deteriorating. With the rise of commercial society, packaging became portable. The industrialisation and mechanisation of food manufacturing in the 19th century sped up its development and production. In the 20th century, new materials (PVC, PET) were added to the long list of natural materials, such as wood, tinplate and aluminium.