The six essential nutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, fats (lipids), vitamins, minerals and water. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs394/en/
The term ‘plant-based’ is often mistaken for vegetarian or vegan, but it literally means the diet is based on plants, but can still include small to moderate amounts of animal products.
WANG X et al., 2014. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ, vol. 349 http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4490.short
ESTRUCH R et al., 2013. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean diet. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, pp.1279-1290.
KAHLEOVA H et al., 2011. Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, iss. 5, pp.549-559.
TRAPP, CB & BARNARD, N, 2010. Usefulness of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets for Treating Type 2 Diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 10, iss. 2, pp.152-158.
TONSTAD S. et al. 2009. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, vol. 32, iss. 5, pp.791-796.
Different dietary choices have been found to have damaging or protective effects on cancers of the pancreas, bowel, colon, mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, lungs and breast.https://www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=8996&trid=8981&trcatid=42
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, an estimated 17.5 million people died from CVD in 2012.
HOOPER L et al, 2015. Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 10, iss. 6.
PARKINSON, L & CICERALE S, 2016. The Health Benefiting of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds. Molecules, vol. 21, iss. 12, p.1734
APARICIO-SOTO, M, et al. 2016. Extra virgin olive oil: a key functional food for prevention of immune-inflammatory diseases. Food & Function, vol. 7, iss. 11, pp.4492-4505.
VIDAVALUR R et al., 2009. Significance of wine and resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: French paradox revisited. Experimental & Clinical Cardiology, vol. 11, iss. 3, pp.217-225.
BROWN L, et al., 2009. The Biological Responses to Resveratrol and Other Polyphenols from Alcoholic Beverages. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 33, iss. 9, pp.1513-1523.
Blue Zones are regions with exceptionally high rates of longevity. Lead researcher Dan Buettner has discovered and reported on 5 Blue Zones: Sardinia in Italy, Loma Linda in California, Nicoya in Costa Rica, Ikaria in Greece and Okinawa in Japan. Sadly this trend is changing, as younger generations, who no longer follow the traditional diet or lifestyle, do not have the same health outcomes as their elders.https://www.bluezones.com
WILLCOX, DC et al., 2009. The Okinawan Diet: Health Implications of a Low-Calorie, Nutrient-Dense, Antioxidant-Rich Dietary Pattern Low in Glycemic Load. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 28, sup. 4, 500S-516S.
WILLCOX, BJ et al, 2007. Caloric Restriction, the Traditional Okinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1114, iss. 1, pp.434-455.
WILLCOX DC et al., 2014. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: A focus on the Okinawan diet.. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462788 See note 5
http://www.pennutrition.com/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=2709&trid=19086&trcatid=38 [Links visited on 03.04.2017]